Birmingham Agreement 1963

Martin Luther King Jr.`s appeal increased after the Birmingham protests and was hailed by many as a hero. [110] The SCLC was in high demand for bringing about change in many cities in the South. [111] In the summer of 1963, King led the march on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where he delivered his most famous speech, « I Have a Dream. » King became the man of the year in 1963 and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. [112] [113] The Children`s Crusade marked an important victory in Birmingham. The city was in the spotlight around the world, and local officials knew they could no longer ignore the civil rights movement. But the fight for equal rights continued in Birmingham. Later that year, in September 1963, four little girls were killed by bombs planted by white racists in the 16th Church of St. Baptist and more than 20 others were injured. Many African-American witnesses blamed the police for the bombing of the royal family and immediately began to express their anger. Some started singing « We Shall Overcome », while others started throwing stones and other small objects. [16] After the second explosion, more people mobilized. When it was Saturday night, many had celebrated and drunk the deal reached.

Many of them were already frustrated with the strategy of non-violence such as Martin Luther King and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and turned to violence. Three African-Americans stabbed white police officer J. N. Spivey in the ribs. [17] The images had a profound effect in Birmingham. Despite decades of disagreement when the photos were published, « the black community immediately consolidated behind King, » according to David Vann, who was later to be mayor of Birmingham. [77] [78] Horrified by what Birmingham police have done to protect segregation, New York Senator Jacob K. Javits said that « the country will not tolerate it » and urged Congress to pass a civil rights law.

[79] Similar reactions were reported by Kentucky Senator Sherman Cooper and Oregon Senator Wayne Morse, who compared Birmingham to apartheid South Africa. [80] A New York Times editorial called the Birmingham police behavior a « national disgrace. » [81] The Washington Post editorial: « The Birmingham show. must arouse the sympathy of the rest of the country for the honest, just and reasonable citizens of the Community who, so recently, have shown in the elections their lack of support for the policy which provoked the unrest in Birmingham. . . .