What Agreement Ended Religious Warfare In Germany In 1555 What Were The Terms Of This Agreement

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The Protestant Reformation was the religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval of the 16th century, which fragmented Catholic Europe and established the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in modern times. In Northern and Central Europe, reformers such as… Read more The interim was overthrown in 1552 by the insurrection of the Protestant voter Maurice of Saxony and his allies. During the negotiations in Passau in the summer of 1552, even the Catholic princes had called for a lasting peace, fearing that the religious controversy would never be resolved. However, the emperor was not willing to recognize religious division in Western Christianity as permanent. This document was foretold by the peace of Passau, which in 1552 granted religious freedom to Lutherans after a victory of the Protestant armies. According to the Passau document, Karl only granted peace until the next Reichstag, whose assembly was convened in early 1555. Nevertheless, the political situation remained confused. When Luther criticized the spiritual authority of the Catholic Church, the princes seized this opportunity, sent from heaven, to take advantage of the situation for their personal advantage: they took control of the churches, limited the activities of the clergy and confiscated their property. Moreover, the publication of Luther`s theses calling for greater social justice has been interpreted by some members of the population as a radical revolution in society.

Extremists and prophets have come forward. Thomas Munster denounced temporal knowledge and insisted that God had revealed his will directly to his elect; he called for the destruction of the wicked, whom he gradually wanted to associate with the powerful. The pietists stressed the importance of emotional reactions in religion and also inner spirituality, prayer and individual sanctification; The main members of this movement were P.J. Spener (1635-1755), A.H. Francke (1653-1727), Count Zinzendorf (1700-1760) and his fraternal community of Moravia. Great progress has been made in the teaching of technology before its time. The university hall was well known. Thus the French entered the conflict in 1635. But at least initially, their armies were unable to advance against Ferdinand II`s troops, even after his death in 1637. Without heirs, Emperor Matthias tried to ensure an orderly transition during his lifetime by electing his dynastic heir (a burning Catholic ferdinand of Styria, then Ferdinand II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) among the separate royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Catholic counter-reform and was not in favour of Protestantism or Czech liberties. Some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia feared losing the religious rights granted to them by Emperor Rudolf II in his letter of majesty (1609).